As you probably know it’s possible to install multiple versions of PHP on one server. For web servers, simply define which PHP version you want to use in your server’s configuration file. But how to do it for PHP cli?
Actually I won’t get into details with Varnish and Nginx configuration because it really depends on your particular case. But it should be pretty straight forward as installing default packages:
apt install varnish
apt install nginx
I’m using port 443 for SSL services, so HAProxy is using this one. It also uses HTTP port 80 and redirects that to https. Everybody knows that Haproxy is stable and quick in jobs it does and that’s load balancing and proxying traffic. In our case, we are going to use it for SSL termination and forward traffic to Varnish which is going to occupy port 6081 (default). And Nginx will use port 8080 because it’s the final destination in our setup. Varnish should cache most of the web content and hopefully put our dedicated server’s CPU at ease most of the time and leverage quite slow CPU to a large amount of RAM (128GB).
In case of traffic increase we can easily balance our traffic to other servers behind Varnish, because Varnish can play a load-balancing role as well.
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There are times when you may need to hook some PHP function for one reason or another. PHP makes it an easy task to accomplish using override_function which overrides built-in functions. This is useful only in the context of your own code or the code you can easily change in order to work with the aforementioned function. So, this solution might not be always at your disposal.
Specifically, let’s take a deeper look into the PHP mail function which is frequently used and misused in various scripts.
Escaping special characters is a usual business in programming and PHP is not an exception either. There are plenty of escaping functions in PHP and we already mentioned some of them that deal with encoding HTML entities. MySQL is also picky when it comes to special characters and it has its own sets and rules which are usually covered with escaping functions such as addslashes. However, when it comes to storing JSON in the MySQL the approach is a bit different.
There are quite a few similar functions in PHP. Some of them are almost identical like echo and print and some have subtle differences which are not obvious at the first glance. We can put htmlspecialchars_decode and html_entity_decode in this category. There is a lot of confusion between notions of HTML special characters and HTML entities so let’s look into the difference.
In certain situations, you could be messing with HTML special characters in a text. At first glance, you might not even notice these are existing in the text. For example, if you’re looking text in a browser these characters will look just like normal characters. But when you peak into the page source you’ll see very different representations, (& for &, " for “, < for <, > for > and so on). So how do you convert it to the normal characters?
Sometimes we will need to automate file copying between our servers. For example, our shell script might need to copy the backup from time to time and we don’t want to provide the password in the clean text format. So what we can do about this?
MySQL master-slave replication is well covered so I won’t go deep into explanations and details. This supposes to be a simple how-to tutorial. However, I’m going to pinpoint a few details that might lead you astray while doing this easy setup.
When you enter the field of multiple MySQL instances on one physical server you might run into the trouble. Lack of documentation, cryptic bugs, and insane settings is something you need to get used to. I almost quit a few times in the process and only my habit of trying unusual things when everything logical failed kept me up to the solution.